Mesh overview

All solvers are based on a finite-volume/cell-centered discretization. The basic theory of such methods is discussed in Notes on the numerical methods.


The core data structure that holds data on the grid is CellCenterData2d. This does not distinguish between cell-centered data and cell-averages. This is fine for methods that are second-order accurate, but for higher-order methods, the FV2d class has methods for converting between the two data centerings.

mesh.patch implementation and use

We import the basic mesh functionality as:

import pyro.mesh.patch as patch
import pyro.mesh.fv as fv
import pyro.mesh.boundary as bnd
import pyro.mesh.array_indexer as ai

There are several main objects in the patch class that we interact with:

  • patch.Grid2d: this is the main grid object. It is basically a container that holds the number of zones in each coordinate direction, the domain extrema, and the coordinates of the zones themselves (both at the edges and center).

  • patch.CellCenterData2d: this is the main data object—it holds cell-centered data on a grid. To build a patch.CellCenterData2d object you need to pass in the patch.Grid2d object that defines the mesh. The patch.CellCenterData2d object then allocates storage for the unknowns that live on the grid. This class also provides methods to fill boundary conditions, retrieve the data in different fashions, and read and write the object from/to disk.

  • fv.FV2d: this is a special class derived from patch.CellCenterData2d that implements some extra functions needed to convert between cell-center data and averages with fourth-order accuracy.

  • bnd.BC: This is simply a container that holds the names of the boundary conditions on each edge of the domain.

  • ai.ArrayIndexer: This is a class that subclasses the NumPy ndarray and makes the data in the array know about the details of the grid it is defined on. In particular, it knows which cells are valid and which are the ghost cells, and it has methods to do the \(a_{i+1,j}\) operations that are common in difference methods.

  • integration.RKIntegrator: This class implements Runge-Kutta integration in time by managing a hierarchy of grids at different time-levels. A Butcher tableau provides the weights and evaluation points for the different stages that make up the integration.

The procedure for setting up a grid and the data that lives on it is as follows:

myg = patch.Grid2d(16, 32, xmax=1.0, ymax=2.0)

This creates the 2-d grid object myg with 16 zones in the x-direction and 32 zones in the y-direction. It also specifies the physical coordinate of the rightmost edge in x and y.

mydata = patch.CellCenterData2d(myg)

bc = bnd.BC(xlb="periodic", xrb="periodic", ylb="reflect-even", yrb="outflow")

mydata.register_var("a", bc)

This creates the cell-centered data object, mydata, that lives on the grid we just built above. Next we create a boundary condition object, specifying the type of boundary conditions for each edge of the domain, and finally use this to register a variable, a that lives on the grid. Once we call the create() method, the storage for the variables is allocated and we can no longer add variables to the grid. Note that each variable needs to specify a BC—this allows us to do different actions for each variable (for example, some may do even reflection while others may do odd reflection).

Jupyter notebook

A Jupyter notebook that illustrates some of the basics of working with the grid is provided as mesh-examples.ipynb. This will demonstrate, for example, how to use the ArrayIndexer methods to construct differences.


The actual filling of the boundary conditions is done by the fill_BC method. The script tests the various types of boundary conditions by initializing a small grid with sequential data, filling the BCs, and printing out the results.